Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Best Friends or Not Analyzing Keith and Stephen - Literature Essay Samples

In Spies by Michael Frayn, the description of Keith as Stephen’s ‘best friend’ does not suit him nearly as much as the ‘officer corps in [their] two man army. Keith is very obviously depicted as pushy, bossy, dominant and a bully on some occasions, always needing to be in charge, always needing to ‘have someone to be braver than.’ It is these times when we see just how little of a true friend Keith is to Stephen, and how he acts more like his leader than his equal. Right at the beginning of the novel in chapter 2, Stephen feels as if he has ‘good fortune in being Keith’s friend’ which shows just how much Stephen is grateful towards Keith, to the point where he is willing to be pushed around and led by him. During Stephen and Keith’s first interaction, Keith’s social standing is much higher than Stephen’s as he lives in a posh, impeccable house, ‘number 2. Chollerton. The Haywards.’ And the boys are ‘socially color coded’ as Stephen goes to a public school while Keith goes to a private school. It is also worth noting that Keith is most likely the way he is due to his home life. Mr. Hayward is depicted as apathetic, formal and it has even been blatantly stated that he abuses Keith. In the third chapter, as Stephen and Keith are investigating Mrs. Hayward, Keith misspells words in their log book multiple times. Despite this, Stephen doesn’t call him out and late in the novel when Mrs. Hayward realizes that Keith has misspelt ‘private’ as ‘privet’, Stephen has half a mind to take responsibility for it as to spare Keith the embarrassment. This shows how low Stephen is willing to stoop for Keith, perhaps because he thinks he owes it to him. When Mrs. Hayward visits Braemar and tells Stephen that Keith is ‘easily led’, Stephen is left staring at her in disbelief, unable to even imagine Keith being led by him. He wonders how Keith manages to fool both their mothers into believing that Stephen is the leader. This leads to sympathy towards Keith for a change rather than Stephen, as Mrs. Hayward’s words imply that Keith is pushed around at home, presumably by his father. Keith is also depicted as a flat out bully in various scenarios as he does not acknowledge Stephen’s bravery and often undermines, belittles and mocks him, such as when Stephen gives Keith the sock that he found in the tin box or when Stephen offers theories about Mrs. Hayward’s whereabouts. Keith ignores him and his ‘eyelids come down’ in disapproval to show that Stephen that his ideas don’t deserve acknowledgement and all ideas that are not Keith’s are invalid. Juxtaposition between Keith and his father clearly show the same condescending sneer and arrogant expression. Further in the novella, Keith also mocks Stephen for ‘hiding [his] face like a little baby’ when he sees the man near the tin box. The hypocrisy of this statement shines through soon after though when they hear someone approaching, and they both hide their face in the mud. That is the first time we see the boys as equals with the second being when they ran back to the Close after terrorizing the tramp, ‘neither of [them] leader, neither of [them] led.’ This shows that fear is the equalizing force between the boys and it also shows that Stephen has now started realizing Keith’s role and so now is trying to take more of a leadership position. Another example of Keith’s dominant nature arises when he makes Stephen take an oath on the bayonet that Stephen would not tell anyone otherwise Keith would kill him. His arrogance is also shown in how he must always take the binoculars and walk in front of Stephen and in how Stephen comes to fear him, letting him boss him around and being grateful to just be allowed near Keith. This causes the reader not only to be enraged at Keith for bossing Stephen around but also for the reader to be enraged at Stephen for letting Keith push him around and for hero worshiping him. This novella claims to be about two best friends, but by the way the reader is shown Keith and Stephen’s interactions, their relationship and their dynamics, it is made obvious that one of them is definitely the leader while the other one is led. Overall, it is impossible for the reader to feel no sympathy towards Stephen in his immense misfortune in being Keith’s so-called friend.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance Of Bonobos And Well Rounded Animals

Bonobos are smart and well-rounded animals because they are omnivores, however, their diet consists of mostly fruits. During the off seasons of these staple resources, they must rely on fallback food when their preferred foods are unavailable. Extremely social animals, Bonobos search for their food by using a unique form of communication to locate and inform their group members of the food source. A bonobo’s diet is diverse and According to table 3 in The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century, fruit takes up 55 percent of bonobos diet and 95 percent of their feces volume (Conklin-Brittain 2001, p. 167-174). Fruit is a staple in their diet, however, they also consume high-quality shoots, leaves, mushrooms, seeds, flowers, stems and pith†¦show more content†¦Bonobos use a wide range of communication patterns to help forage for food. In an article titled Preliminary Observation on the Feeding Behavior of Pan Paniscus, researchers studied the feeding behavior of Bonobos over a seven-month period. The researchers reported that when a small group (2-4 Bonobos) located a tree bearing ripe fruit, they would signal by vocalizing to the rest of the group (Badrian, 1981, p. 173-181). Bonobos use five distinct calls when searching for food and a combination of these calls to describe the food quality of the source that they have located (Clay, 2011). When a preferred food is found, peeps and barks are given to the others compared to yelps and grunts that are given to lesser preferred foods. When Bonobos have acquired their food, they are social in their food sharing patterns. A study done by Vicky M. Oeize and her team showed that hunting and meat sharing had more social than nutritional benefits (Oeize, 2008). In another study done that looked at the specifics of how they share their food, the results showed that it is voluntary (Hare, 2010). The experiment was conducted in three adjacent rooms, with the food being in the center room. One Bonobo was placed in the center room and rather than consuming all the food alone, eighty percent of the subjects opened one of the adjacent doors to share with a recipient, even if it meant the recipient would eat all the food. TheShow MoreRelatedArchaeology Notes19985 Words   |  80 Pagesthan on their knuckles Plesiadapiforms, primitive form in the Pliocene thought to be an ancestor of primates although much controversy exist. Postorbital bar, a bony ring encircling the eye, a key feature that characterizes primates, indicating the importance of vision to the order. Robust larger jaws accompanied by pronounced sagittal crests in the case of males.   They also had much larger back teeth (premolars and molars) and smaller front ones (incisors) Stratigraphy is the study of the distribution

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Contemporary Diagnosis and Management

Question: Discuss about the Contemporary Diagnosis and Management. Answer: Introduction: The human heart is a hollow organ of the cardiovascular system. Its composed of four chambers: two atria that receive venous blood and two ventricles which pump blood into arteries emptying the heart (Van et al. 2013). The right ventricle empties the heart of deoxygenated blood through the right atria and the pulmonary artery into the lungs. The left ventricle pumps and drains the heart of oxygenated blood to body tissues and cells through the aorta. The heart also consists of three layers, epicardium which is a fibrous sac that encloses the heart, endocardium which is made up endothelial tissues, and the myocardium that is made up of muscle fibers responsible for heart pumping action (Marieb Hoehn, 2015). Valves too make up part of the heart, they are four in total, and they include an atrioventricular group of valves such as tricuspid valves and the mitral valves. The second group is semilunar valves that include pulmonic valve and aortic valve. The heart also consists of coronary arteries, right and left pulmonary artery and superficial to these arteries are the pulmonary veins (Van et al. 2013). Functions of the heart The major function is pumping of blood, and this involves cardiac conduction system. The specialized cells of this system generate and conduct electrical impulses to the myocardial cells (Van et al. 2013). As a result, atrioventricular contractions occurs providing effective blood flow hence optimizing cardiac output. The electrical impulse is initiated at the Sino atrial node (SA), the primary pacemaker. The impulses cause subsequent stimulation and contraction of the right atrium. The impulses are then transmitted to the atrioventricular (AV) node where they are delayed for some time to allow atria to contract and complete ventricular filling (Marieb Hoehn, 2015). The AV relays the impulse to the ventricles through the bundle of His that passes through the septum demarcating right and left ventricles. The bundle of His segregates into the right and left bundle branches (Van et al. 2013). The right bundle branch transmits impulses to the right ventricle while the left bundle branch transmits impulses to the left ventricle. From the bundle branches, the impulses are transmitted to the terminal end of the conduction system, Purkinje fibers. The myocardial cells of the heart are consequently stimulated causing ventricular contraction, and therefore ejection of blood occurs (Marieb Hoehn, 2015). Adaptations of the heart to deviations from homeostasis Homeostasis is the stability or balance in the system whereby the body tries to maintain a constant internal environment through adjustments as conditions change. When any alterations affecting the cardiovascular system occur, the heart responds by either negative or positive feedback. As noted by Marieb and Hoehn (2015), negative feedback is a reaction in which the heart responds in a way to reverse any alterations. For instance, when the blood pressure increases above normal, baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses become increasingly stretched resulting in increased frequency of action potentials transmitted to the cardiac and vasomotor centers in the oblongata, hence lowering the blood pressure. Secondly, it does so through positive feedback, and this does not result in homeostasis. For example, in blood vessels, a threshold electric potential, triggers production of much larger action potentials resulting in further destabilization (Buja et al. 2014). Congestive heart failure (CHF) This is a cardiovascular disease in which the hearts blood pumping function is both ineffectively and insufficiently to meet the demands of body tissues for oxygen and nutrients (Peteiro et al. 2011). It can be categorized into classes 1 to 4 as the condition progresses from one class, which is asymptomatic to last class that is severe (Ramani et al. 2010). The last class is characterized by limitation in physical activity and danger signs like fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea and chest pain presents. Symptoms that commonly manifest depend on the body system where fluid overload is occurring. If cardiac congestion occurs the symptoms may include, tachycardia, cardiomegaly, delayed capillary refill, and poor peripheral perfusion (Peteiro et al. 2011). On the other hand, pulmonary congestion may occur, exhibiting symptoms such as cyanosis, dyspnea, tachypnea, and grunting, wheezing and flaring nares. In systemic venous congestion there, ascites, fatigue, anorexia, weight gain chest and e dema ensue (Williams Hopper, 2015). Pathophysiology of Congestive heart failure Several conditions lead to the development of congestive heart failure. These include hypertension, rheumatic fever, anemia, myocardial infarction and valvular disease. According to Ramani et al. (2010), these conditions partially impair the functioning of the myocardial cells thus reducing its contractility and effective pumping of blood by the ventricles. It can be either right sided or left sided heart failure. The right-sided heart failure occurs when the right ventricle is unable to adequately pump blood leading to increased pressure in the right atrium and ventricle as well as the systemic venous circulation, leading to liver and spleen enlargement and occasionally edema (Peteiro et al. 2011). As stipulated by Peteiro et al. (2011), the left-sided heart failure occurs when the left ventricle is unable to efficiently pump blood to the systemic circulation leading to increased pressure in the left atrium and ventricle as well as the pulmonary system. Lungs become congested leading to pulmonary edema. Consequently, there is the emergence of complications like kidney failure due to decreased blood flow to the renal system. There can also be liver damage due to scarring resulting from increased fluid buildup in the liver, cardiac muscles and valvular damage, distension of neck veins due to systemic overload, and pulmonary embolism as a result of clogging of blood in the lungs (Williams Hopper, 2015). References Buja, L. M., Netter, F. H., Krueger, G. R. F. (2014).Netter's Illustrated Human Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. Marieb, E. N., Hoehn, K. (2015).Human anatomy physiology. Harlow, Essex: Pearson. Peteiro J, Peteiro-Vzquez J, Gaca-Campos A, Garca-Bueno L, Abugatts-de-Torres JP, Castro-Beiras A. (2011), The causes, consequences, and treatment of left or right heart failure. VHRM. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S10669 Ramani GV, Uber PA, Mehra MR. (2010), Chronic Heart Failure: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85(2):180-195. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0494 Van, D. G. K. M., Rhees, R. W., Palmer, S. (2013).Human anatomy and physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Williams, L. S., Hopper, P. D. (2015).Understanding medical, surgical nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

The difference between living at home and living with a spouse free essay sample

The difference between living at home and living with a spouse If someone would have asked me at 17 years old if this is what I expected living on my own. I would have never imagined this is how it was going to be. Moving from my parents home and into my own place with my spouse was definitely a complete change as well as a challenge from what I was used to. I do not think that I could have prepared myself for how different it was really going to be. I went from everything being done for me, to having to make sure, I got everything done and thatI did not wait on someone else to do it for me. WOW! How different it was living at home and moving out with a spouse. The changes involved the house, rules, and memories. When we are still living at home with our parents we do not really think about how much the size and the location of a house will determine the price that you will end up paying for the property. We will write a custom essay sample on The difference between living at home and living with a spouse or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Once we move out, we start to realize even though we would love to have that big house with lots of land, which mainly we only want this to how off to our friends and family.It does not always come at a price we can afford. Once you become independent and start paying for these things on your own. You become more observant and start to look for homes that fall in your price range, based on what you can afford on the Income that you have coming In. And then we soon start to realize that even though the house may not be large, It Is still a place we can call our home and start to feel all warm and cozy. We should Just be thankful we can have a home .When we leave home It Is always seems to be a sad time In our lives Just because, we think about how many things has happened during the time we have been there and how leaving makes us feel Like It will all come to an end. Just remember those memories we will always keep with us no matter where we are In our life. Like the summers playing outside, the picnics In the field or maybe the water fights with siblings, most of all the holidays that your family all comes together and celebrates.The one good thing to always remember when we are living on our own, oh can start to create your own memories with your spouse. Whether It Is something completely crazy or something that Is very emotional this Is how you build your own memories. I think more now about all the things that we did growing up at home and that helps me determine how I want them to be now. The difference between living at home and living with a spouse By dreggier based on what you can afford on the income that you have coming in. And then we soon start to realize that even though the house may not be large, it is still a place weWhen we leave home it is always seems to be a sad time in our lives Just been there and how leaving makes us feel like it will all come to an end. Just remember those memories we will always keep with us no matter where we are in our life. Like the summers playing outside, the picnics in the field or maybe the water celebrates. The one good thing to always remember when we are living on our own, you can start to create your own memories with your spouse. Whether it is something completely crazy or something that is very emotional this is how you build

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Demographic Paper Essays

Demographic Paper Essays Demographic Paper Essay Demographic Paper Essay Running head: DEMOGRAPHIC PAPER Demographic Paper Gabija Nezabitauskaite University Of Phoenix Cindy Nettestad Perkins HCS/490 3/31/2011 Demographic Paper Population demographics in the United States are experiencing increasing changes that may affect health care and its practice. Changes in population demographics do bring diversity in culture, economics, religion and believes, education and social disparity. According to Yali and Revensons, (2004), â€Å"Given the current levels of social and racial disparities in health and the likelihood that these disparities will not decrease under the current health system, we presume that as the American population continues to change, these disparities will have an even greater impact on health â€Å"(pg. 147). The expansive changes in population demographics can and will affect the health care in various ways. In the following paragraphs the senior management team can become familiar with the identified targeted population, data about this population demographics, the general impact that changing demographics may have on the health care market, and the ways the changes of demographics of this particular population will affect health care. Moreover, a few keys of health related- challenges to this population will be analyzed including the care costs, the effects of chronic disease wellness program and is effects on the costs for this demographics will be discusses. Last, the senior management team can finalize their reading with the writer’s opinion about these demographics effects on marketing needs and services, and how these challenges can be addressed. Targeted population and demographics data The number of aging population is substantial increasing, particularly the ones in their oldest age, who are the highest demanders for health care consumption. The age of world’s population is increasing for a few reasons. The decline in fertility and the increased life expectancy result in increased numbers of elderly also called the â€Å"Baby Boomer Age†. Hence aged population uses the public health system and social and medical services the most, in compare to a younger population. For example, many older adults are affected by chronic diseases, have any sort of disability that leads to an increased long-term health care costs. According to CDC, (2003), â€Å"In the United States, the proportion of the population aged over 65 years is projected to increase from 12. 4% in 2000 to 19. 6% in 2030. The number of person aged over 65 years is expected to increase from approximately 35 million in 2000 to an estimated 71 million in 2030, and the number of persons aged 80 years is expected to increase from 9. 3 million in 2000 to 19. 5 million in 2030† (para. 2). States as California, Michigan, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Florida contain the largest numbers of older population. We are experiencing the demographic change that is highly influenced by low fertility and delayed mortality rather than the other way around. Thus the result of such a change links to demographic transition impacting the worldwide age distribution. Demographic impact on the health care market Aged population has many specific demands on health care impacting the health care market. For instance, pharmaceutical companies are more concentrating on manufacturing drugs for older generation. The advertisement on TV is aiming 70 % percent more for older audience rather than younger audience. Besides drug advertisement, long-term care facilities, and insurances such as Medicare that serves only the elderly, are booming on TV, magazines, and news papers. Such demographics also affect the orthopedic market. For example, because the elderly population in the US is increasing hence there is higher incidence of musculoskeletal conditions that only happens with aging. Therefore the orthopedic occupation is becoming very important because of the high demand. Hence the health care market is focusing on targeted population that affects health care delivery and consumption. Why and how the demographics of aged population affect health care/increased health care and prescriptions, and long-term care costs Aged population will and already is impacting the health care, as it drives the health care costs up. For example, some medical statistics show, persons 65 and over consume three to five times more health care costs, that the ones who are younger than 65. According to CDC, (2003), â€Å"†¦the rapid growth in the number of older persons, coupled with continued advances in medical technology, is expected to create upward pressure on health- and long-term-care spending† (para. 8). The biggest concern of the effects on the health care is the imposed challenge associated with long- term care on families and public resources. For instance, the expenditures for long-term care are rapidly increasing, placing a burden for public financing. As of 2001, $132 billion dollars were spend for public programs including Medicaid and Medicare, of which 60% were covered by the federal government and 30 by patients and their families. Another concern in the health care industry challenging the seniors is the rise in costs for prescription drugs. One of the main reasons why the pharmaceuticals are becoming more and more expensive is the aging population and the increased use of expensive specialty medications. Chronic disease wellness program affect the costs for this demographic Chronic disease wellness programs are very important for such demographics as seniors because this group of age is increasing as proportion of the entire population and contributes to health care cost escalation. Wellness programs are necessary for the elderly because it helps to improve their wellbeing. For example, such programs include increased physical activity, healthy nutrition, elimination of smoking and alcohol consumption. Hence the issue on utilization in such programs is the elevated expenditures that reflect on reduced in-patient admissions. As mentioned above the demographics of seniors are rapidly changing, and more beneficiaries are enrolling in Medicare. As of 2011 about 46 million people are receiving benefits, by the 2030 it is estimated that about 78 million people will be enrolled. According to Coberley, Rula, and Pope (2011), â€Å"Over 95 percent of the amounts currently spent by Medicare on the nation’s senior population is consumed by beneficiaries with one or more chronic diseases. These factors, taken together and notwithstanding the reduced costs projected as a result of health care reform, have led the Medicare Trustees to estimate that the program will be insolvent by 2029† (pg. 45). Another concern that has an impact to the cost for chronic disease wellness program is the increase in overweight people who sooner or later will suffer from diabetes. Current statistics from CDC show an increase in diabetes patients from 8 per 1000 people as of 2008, to 15 per 1000 in 2050. Marketing needs and/or services needed for aged population As we discussed above, chronic disease wellness program are elevating health care costs for seniors because of a high demand for such programs. Hence a solution would be an increased marketing and services for wellness programs that would help the pre-seniors before their retirement and to prevent chronic disease or at least mellow the symptoms with a healthier life style. Therefore, marketing various wellness programs, including fitness and healthy nutrition would prevent seniors and the Medicare from costly treatment of chronic disease. For example, few studies showed that health care related expenses resulted in reduction because of the association with community based physical activity program. Hence seniors with diabetes should have a particular interest to focus on wellness programs because of the financial impact of diabetes on Medicare expenditures. Marketing needs for wellness aiming the elderly should be striving. The individual patient, the community, and society as a whole addressing these challenges The current demographic situation with the aged raises alarms about the ability of the health care system to cope with the future health care needs. This particular demographic is facing following challenges, the increased healthcare issues including chronic diseases, unstable healthcare insurance coverage, high medical expenses, and debt problems. Hence given the circumstances older people before approaching retirement could do the following to address these challenges. For instance, add special health accounts of Medicare for expenses that are not covered, eliminate the waiting period, which is two years, for disabled individuals to be covered by Medicare, and allow the elderly to enroll early helped by tax credits for low income people. Community and the whole society should focus on healthy lifestyle to prevent from chronic diseases. Public health should make available and promote fitness-based wellness programs, healthy nutrition shops including farmer’s markets, and social outdoor activities. Conclusion The discussed demographics of aged population reflect various issues in health care. The number of elderly is rapidly increasing for two reasons, lower birth rate, and higher life span. Some of the issues in health care affected by the seniors include the cost elevation of health care services, prescription drugs, and long-term care. Chronic disease wellness programs are experiencing reduced in-patient admissions, as the costs became a burden for the Medicare beneficiaries. Marketing service is highly focusing on promoting fitness-based wellness programs, and chronic disease prevention incentives. There is much what an individual, the community and the whole society can do to address the challenges that this demographic is facing. References Yali, A. M. , and Revenson, T. (2004). How changes in Population Demographics Will Impact Health Psychology: Incorporating a Broader Notion of Cultural Competence Into the Field. Retrieved from, http://web. gc. cuny. edu/Psychology/socpersonality/TAR/docs/04HowChangesinPop. pdf CDC. (2003). Public Health and Aging: Trends in Aging-United States and Worldwide. Retrieved from, cdc. gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5206a2. htm Coberley, C. , Rula, E. , and Pope, J. (2011). Effectiveness of Health and Wellness Initiatives for Seniors. Retrieved from, healthways. com/uploadedfiles/popHealthManagement/EffectivenessofHealthWellnessForSeniors. pdf

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Being read to Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Being read to - Essay Example Alberto Manguel in his Chapter â€Å"Being Read To† as contained in his book â€Å"A History of Reading† revisits the common and often contradictory subject of reading on behalf of someone. He carefully looks into this issue analytically giving the readers a historical framework on the origin of the subject, quite in line with his title â€Å"A History of Reading† perhaps as a means of justifying his perspective and pure love of writing and reading. Above all, I agree with Page’s arguments that Manguel’s writing tackles each of its chapters using a freestanding approach that carefully selects on topics in the â€Å" A History of Reading† thereby bringing on a new approach to how reading approaches have conventionally been taught overtime, and peoples approach to reading both in private and public sphere, and what has been popularly referred to as reading as a metaphor, offering a relation what is conventionally being heard to that information which is read over time as has been exposed in his controversial chapter â€Å"Being Read To† (Page). Alberto Manguel’s â€Å"History of the Reading† is an interesting historical writing that combines a rich collection of learned knowledge and pleasure rather than mere reading. This informative reading takes on a different approach than to book organization, adopting what I may call a digressive route which does not have a conventional beginning to proceed logically as some would expect of a ‘historical’ writing (Manguel; Bell). According to Manguel, he takes on the approach that there is no universal governing law operating in this situation, though there seems to be a outstanding concept that repeats itself in a variety of forms. To this far, this writing as advanced by Manguel calls for what can be strongly referred to as privilege of the reader. The reader’s thoughts can therefore contribute in changing the book into more like a message that makes sense for his

Monday, February 10, 2020

Safety Elements in Aircraft Performance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Safety Elements in Aircraft Performance - Essay Example The objective of this exercise is to investigate why, if at all, and by how much, if so, each safety element within the overall aircraft performance criteria affects such safety. 6. the take-off thrust performance data is based on take-off thrust setting instructions as per Diamond 1A, General, 2005. These have been left out because they are not considered germane to this paper's purpose. (Diamond 1A, General, 2005) The paper shall now also include the basis on which the operational factors that have been considered for inclusion of the Diamond 1A, 2005, aircraft performance data, the last having been utilized for the purpose of this paper. The decision speed - the speed (IAS), after engine failure or any other cause, at which the pilot may elect to stop or takeoff - varies with weight, temperature, altitude, wind, runway gradient, takeoff flap setting, anti-skid availability, and takeoff speed schedule. (Diamond 1A, p. 6.8, 2005) The IAS at which airplane rotation is initiated assuming a continued takeoff after engine failure . When it is assumed that, under these conditions, the airplane is rotated at nose up body altitude at it will reach a speed of before a height of 35ft is attained the rotation speed will vary with weight, altitude, temperature, takeoff flap setting, and takeoff speed schedule. (Diamond 1A, p. 6.8, 2005) This is the actual speed attained at 35ft above runway surface with engine failure at and